Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose in the body, which is the same for vegetables as for cereals.  Carbohydrates are not an essential nutrient for dogs, although they are an excellent source of digestible energy in the form of glucose and most of the times contain other beneficial nutrients such as fibre for gut motility. The used peas and potatoes have a lower amount of carbohydrates in comparison with the cereals we use.

Looking at the carbohydrates in cereals and vegetables, there may be differences in the amount present in these ingredients as well as the form in which they are present. Not only the amount of carbohydrates is of importance, also the distribution between easily digestible and slowly digestible carbohydrates is of importance as well as the amount of fibre in the ingredient and the characteristics of the final product. A food’s glycemic index refers to how quickly the food is broken down and released into the pet’s blood glucose. A carbohydrate source with a higher glycemic index is an easily digestible source of glucose and blood glucose levels raise quickly after the meal. However the type of cereal or vegetable is not always reflecting the glycemic index, as this is also dependent on the specific form this ingredient is added. For instance brown rice (with the hull) will have a different glycemic index in relation to white rice (without the hull).

In a study of Carciofi et al. (2008) the effect of six carbohydrates on post-prandial glucose and insulin response was measured. “Starch digestibility was greater than 98% in all diets and was greater for brewer’s rice and cassava flour than for lentils and peas diets (p < 0.05). Dogs’ immediate post-prandial glucose and insulin responses (AUC ≤ 30 min) were greater for brewer’s rice, corn, and cassava flour diets (p < 0.05), and later meal responses (AUC ≥ 30 min) were greater for sorghum, lentil and pea diets (p < 0.05). Variations in diet digestibility and post-prandial response can be explained by differences in chemical composition of each starch source including fibre content and starch granule structure.” This study shows that for instance peas is more slowly digested, than brewer’s rice and corn which assumes that it has a lower glycemic index

In another study of Adolphe et al. (2014) the difference between peas and rice on postprandial insulin responses was tested. “The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.”

Diet of dogs versus wolves 

Guido Bosch1*, Esther A. Hagen-Plantinga2 and Wouter H. Hendriks 1,2 

1 Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.151, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands

Download research : diet of dogs versus wolves (1MB | PDF)

Starch and Fiber Fractions in Selected Food and Feed Ingredients Affect Their Small Intestinal Digestibility and Fermentability and Their Large Bowel Fermentability In Vitro in a Canine Model 1,2

Geoff E. Bednar, Avinash R. Patil, Sean M. Murray, Christine M. Grieshop, Neal R. Merchen and George C. Fahey, Jr.3

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801

Starch and Fiber Fractions in Selected Food and Feed Ingredients Affect Their Small Intestinal Digestibility and Fermentability and Their Large Bowel Fermentability In Vitro in a Canine Model 1,2 (3MB | PDF)

Effects of six carbohydrate sources on dog diet digestibility and post-prandial glucose and insulin response

A. C. Carciofi1, F. S. Takakura1, L. D. de-Oliveira1, E. Teshima1, J. T. Jeremias1, M. A. Brunetto1 and F. Prada2

1 Department of Veterinary Clinic and Surgery, Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinarian Sciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal, Brazil, and 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, Brazil

Effects of six carbohydrate sources on dog diet digestibility and post-prandial glucose and insulin response (2MB | PDF)

 

Composition, digestibility and nutritive value of cereals for dogs

Riitta Kempe, Markku Saastamoinen, Seppo Hyyppä

MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, Equines, Varsanojantie 63, FIN-32100 Ypäjä, Finland

Composition, digestibility and nutritive value of cereals for dogs (1.2 MB | PDF)